Journal Article

Automatic Tuning and Adaptation for PID Controllers—A Survey

Karl Johan Åström, Tore Hägglund, Chang C. Hang, Weng Kuen Ho


Adaptive techniques such as gain scheduling, automatic tuning and continuous adaptation have been used in industrial single-loop controllers for about ten years. This paper gives a survey of the different adaptive techniques, the underlying process models and control designs. An overview of industrial products is also presented, which includes a fairly detailed investigation of four different adaptive single-loop controllers.


Adaptive control, automatic tuning, gain scheduling, PID control.

Control Engineering Practice, 1:4, pp. 699–714,1993.