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KCFP, Closed-Loop Combustion Control

Researchers: Rolf Johansson and Gabriel Turesson in cooperation with Lianhao Yin and Prof. Per Tunestål, Div. Combustion Engines, Lund University.

 

Competence Center Combustion Processes (KCFP) at Lund University focuses on research of combustion processes between HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) and classical Otto and Diesel engines.

Project aims:

  • Reducing emissions, improving efficiency and repeatability of HCCI and partially pre-mixed combustion (PPC) using closed-loop control;
  • Control-oriented modeling and simulation of combustion processes;
  • Model-based control and optimization evaluated on test beds.


During the project phase from 2014 to 2017, research has been focused on implementing PPC in a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine with the objective of advancing the concept from manual operation in steady state towards autonomous and transient operation. Controllers have been designed to regulate ignition delay and pressure-rise rate and to improve low-load operation. The ignition delay determines the degree of premixed combustion and is essential for successful PPC operation. Premixed combustion can give rise to violent combustion and high pressure-rise rate rates. This can be avoided with the use of small pilot fuel injections. Pilot-injection adjustment with feedback control was used to keep the pressure-rise rate below specified levels. It has also been found that pilot injections are necessary for improvement of charge ignitability at low engine load where PPC traditionally have had difficulties to operate with sufficient reliability. The designed controllers have been evaluated experimentally in the engine laboratory at Lund University.

 During 2017, model predictive control has been used to efficiently fulfill constraints on cylinder pressure, NOx emissions and exhaust temperature with multiple injections. It has been shown that multiple injections can be used to increase efficiency with 2 to 4 % if restrictive constraints are imposed. The principle of this control method is to utilize a linearized cylinder pressure model and a novel heat-release detection method, in order to predict how cylinder pressure and NOx emissions vary with fuel-injection timings, see Fig.1.

Model predictive control has been utilized to efficiently fulfill constraints on cylinder pressure and NOx emissions with the use of multiple injections. This figure illustrates how the controller predicts a deviation in pressure, NOx formation and heat release rate (dashed) from the previous cycle data (solid).

Fig. 1 Model predictive control has been utilized to efficiently fulfill constraints on cylinder pressure and NOx emissions with the use of multiple injections. This figure illustrates how the controller predicts a deviation in pressure, NOx formation and heat release rate (dashed) from the previous cycle data (solid).

 

 

Publications

 

Gabriel Ingesson, Lianhao Yin, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål: "An investigation on ignition-delay modelling for control". International Journal of Powertrains, 6:3, pp. 282–306, 2017.

Gabriel Ingesson, Lianhao Yin, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål: "PI-Controller Design for Combustion-Timing Feedback, from n-Heptane to iso-Octane in Compression-Ignition Engines". ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 2017.

Lianhao Yin, Gabriel Ingesson, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestal, J. Karl Hedrick: "Nonlinear air-path control of a heavy-duty diesel engine - A Receding Horizon Sliding Control approach". In 2017 American Control Conference, ACC 2017, 2017.

Gabriel Ingesson, Lianhao Yin, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål: "Efficiency Optimal, Maximum Pressure Control in Compression Ignition Engines". In 2017 American Control Conference, 2017.

Lianhao Yin, Gabriel Ingesson, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson: "Model-Based Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Timing Control". IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49:11, pp. 340–346, 2016.

Gabriel Ingesson, Lianhao Yin, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "An Investigation on Ignition Delay Modeling For Control". International Journal of Powertrains, 2016.

Gabriel Ingesson, Lianhao Yin, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål: "Control of the low-load region in partially premixed combustion". In Movic & Rasd 2016, 2016.

Gabriel Ingesson, Lianhao Yin, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål: "A Double-Injection Control Strategy For Partially Premixed Combustion". In 8th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control AAC 2016 , 2016.

Gabriel Ingesson: "Model-Based Control of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion". Licentiate Thesis Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden, December 2015.

 

Anders Widd, Hsien-Hsin Liao, J. Christian Gerdes, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "Hybrid Model Predictive Control of Exhaust Recompression HCCI". Asian Journal of Control, 16:2, pp. 370–381,2014.

Anders Widd, Per Tunestål, Johan Åkesson, Rolf Johansson: "Single-Zone Diesel PPC Modeling for Control". In 2012 American Control Conference, Montréal, Canada, June 2012.

Anders Widd, Kent Ekholm, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "Physics-Based Model Predictive Control of HCCI Combustion Phasing Using Fast Thermal Management and VVA". IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 20:3, pp. 688–699, April 2012.

Nikhil Ravi, Hsien-Hsin Liao, Adam F. Jungkunz, Anders Widd, J. Christian Gerdes: "Model predictive control of HCCI using variable valve actuation and fuel injection". Control Engineering Practice, 20:4, pp. 421–430, April 2012.

Anders Widd, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "Modeling for HCCI Control". In D. Alberer, H. Hjalmarsson, L. del Re (Eds.) (Eds.): Identification for Automotive Systems, Springer, London, 2012.

Anders Widd, Patrick Borgqvist, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson, Bengt Johansson: "Investigating Mode Switch from SI to HCCI using Early Intake Valve Closing and Negative Valve Overlap". In 2011 JSAE/SAE International Powertrains, Fuel & Lubricants, , August 2011.

Anders Widd, Hsien-Hsin Liao, J. Christian Gerdes, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "Control of Exhaust Recompression HCCI using Hybrid Model Predictive Control". In 2011 American Control Conference, San Francisco, California, USA, June 2011.

Hsien-Hsin Liao, Nikhil Ravi, Adam Jungkunz, Anders Widd, J. Christian Gerdes: "Controlling Combustion Phasing of Recompression HCCI with a Switching Controller". In Proc. Sixth IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control, Germany, July 2010.

Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Anders Widd: "Modeling and Model-based Control of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Dynamics". In L. del Re, F. Allgöwer, L. Glielmo, C. Guardiola, I. Kolmanovsky (Eds.) (Eds.): Automotive Model Predictive Control---Models, Methods and Applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, May 2010.

Carl Wilhelmsson, Per Tunestål, Anders Widd, Rolf Johansson: "A Fast Physical NOx Model Implemented on an Embedded System". In IFAC Workshop on Engine and Powertrain Control, Simulation and Modeling (ECoSM 2009) , Malmaison, Rueil, France, November 2009.

Anders Widd, Kent Ekholm, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "Experimental Evaluation of Predictive Combustion Phasing Control in an HCCI Engine using Fast Thermal Management and VVA". In 2009 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, Saint Petersburg, Russia, July 2009.

Anders Widd: "Predictive Control of HCCI Engines using Physical Models". Licentiate Thesis ISRN LUTFD2/TFRT--3246--SE, Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden, May 2009.

Carl Wilhelmsson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, Anders Widd, Rolf Johansson: "A Physical Two-Zone NOx Model Intended for Embedded Implementation". In SAE Technical Papers 2009-01-1509, SAE World Congress & Exhibition, April 2009, Detroit, MI, USA, April 2009.

Kent Ekholm, Maria Karlsson, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson, Bengt Johansson, Petter Strandh: "Ethanol-Diesel Fumigation in a Multi-Cylinder Engine". SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 1:1, pp. 26–36, April 2009.

Luca Benvenuti, Andrea Balluchi, Alberto Bemporad, S. Di Cairano, Bengt Johansson, Rolf Johansson, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Per Tunestål: "Chapter 15: Automotive Control". In (Eds.): Handbook of Hybrid Systems Control: Theory, Tools, Applications. In J. Lunze, F. Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009.

Anders Widd, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "Physical Modeling and Control of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines". In Proc. 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Cancun, Mexico, December 2008.

Anders Widd, Per Tunestål, Carl Wilhelmsson, Rolf Johansson: "Control-Oriented Modeling of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition incorporating Cylinder Wall Temperature Dynamics". In Proc. 9th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Kobe, Japan, October 2008.

Daniel Blom, Maria Karlsson, Kent Ekholm, Per Tunestål, Rolf Johansson: "HCCI Engine Modeling and Control Using Conservation Principles". In SAE World Congress, SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0789, Detroit, MI, April 2008.

Rolf Johansson: "Subspace-Based Continuous-Time Identification". In (Eds.): Identification of Continuous-time Models from Sampled Data, Springer-Verlag, London, March 2008.

Rolf Johansson: "Continuous-Time Model Identification Using Spectrum Analysis with Passivity-Preserving Model Reduction". In (Eds.): Identification of Continuous-time Models from Sampled Data, Springer-Verlag, London, March 2008.

Johan Bengtsson, Petter Strandh, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson: "Hybrid Modelling of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Dynamic—A Survey". International Journal of Control, 80:11, pp. 1814–1848, November 2007.

Rolf Johansson, Anders Rantzer: "Editorial—Hybrid Systems in Automotive Control". International Journal of Control, 80:11, pp. 1699–1700, November 2007.

Johan Bengtsson, Petter Strandh, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson: "Model Predictive Control of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Dynamics". In 2006 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, Munich, Germany, October 2006.

Petter Strandh, Johan Bengtsson, Rolf Johansson, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson: "Variable Valve Actuation for Timing Control of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine". In SAE Paper 2005-01-0147, March 2005.

 


2018-03-19